How to write a summary

How to write an executive summary (Instructions)

If a summary is mentioned, it refers to the representation of a text, for example, a report, an article or a book in a short, objective form.

This means in the context of the summary text is summarized objectively, judgmental and limited to the essentials.

The main task of a summary is here is to inform the reader of the text, so that he can get an overview and to have read even without the text, know what it is about and wanted what the author convey or reach.

However, for a summary of its task may be just, it must meet some basic requirements. This implies that the aggregation limit on the important topics of the text and the author’s intention has to play without their own interpreters or ratings. In addition, the summary a self-contained text with a clear structure and red thread must be.

But actually a summary will be written, explained the following instructions step by step:

 How to write a summary ?

1st step:

read and edit the text

The first step in writing a summary is the text that should be combined to read. The text is initially read as a whole, to determine what is at stake in the text and followed what was the intention of the author.

Thereafter, the text is read a second time and processed in this context with regard to the summary. For this, the text is divided on the one hand in the introduction, in the main part and in the final part and divided the other into sections.

The individual sections are read gradually accurate and each listed key information and statements of a section.

Is all the text worked through, the notes will be checked again. Turns out that to deal with a number of sections of the same statement, can such explanations and information that contain no new information to be sorted out.

2. step:

The notes are divided and write a first draft

If the text is processed, the own notes can be sorted and grouped. A summary should be a self-contained text which reflects the important topics and the author’s intentions objectively.

For this reason also a summary in an introduction, a body and a trailer divided.

How to write an executive summary

The introduction usually includes one to two sentences and specifies who wrote the summarized text, the original title of the text is, what kind of text it is and the source from which the text comes.

The main section then summarizes the key messages from the text together. It is usually the easiest and most suitable to maintain the chronology of the text largely.

However, it is quite possible to connect several bays or to change the order, if it facilitates understanding of the text. The final part includes similar introduction, also a sentence or two, and lends itself to set final accents.

3. step:

The summary formulate.

If the first draft completed, the summary can now be formulated. As a summary is a text in a short form and the opinion or intentions of the author reproduces, a summary is always written in the 3rd person.

As tense write the rules before the present, however, has to be of course, pay attention to the logic. all statements in the present tense can not always be present, but only make sense if they are implemented in a historical or future tense.

It says in the text, for example, “In the past, the working conditions in factories were significantly worse.”, Can not be dispensed with the past tense. In summary, this statement would thus, for example, “The author of the opinion that the working conditions in factories were formerly much worse.” Hot.

False However formulations would be like “the author was of the opinion” or “the text reported it that …” because can here and the present tense must be used. should be avoided also in technical terms or phrases that are understandable only in the context of the whole text.

A typical error associated with summaries is that the texts do not form self-contained unit.

This means that the texts often act as a series of statements, without these statements form a closer relationship. To avoid this and to provide a smooth transition, should be used conjunctions and compound words.

For the introduction, the formulations offer here, such as “The text (title) By (author) is concerned with …” or “In his text (title) continues (Author) with … apart.” To.

The main body can “content can be divided the text into … sections.” Then, for example, with start and to the individual sections and statements liquid to combine, you can work with materials and compound words such also, further, beyond or finally.

In addition, words such offer “In the first section the author treats …”, “From the second section shows that …”, “In conclusion, the author states …” or “The author acknowledges the problem, but judged …” to.

writing a summary : How to create a good summary

Find all information and examples for creating a good summary

writing a summary : How to create a good summaryThe curriculumsummary is currently done in tabular form and may chronologically, against chronologically but are staggered by scholastic and professional career (American form) or.

The Curriculum Vitae (also called CV) should be concise but complete all details contained.

For each application, a separate curriculum vitae should be created, which is tailored to the company and the respective job posting. Therefore, it is not advisable to strictly adhere to templates, just like the cover letter .Particularly for applicants with wide aufgestelltem job description must be ensured.

Content for a successful summary

No matter which option you choose the outline in the preparation. The content of the summary is the crucial and important for success. The following points should be aware and bring:


Personal data

How to write curriculum vitae format

  • Full Name
    Enter your correct first and last name. If a second first name is on their identity cards, so you must specify this not necessarily if you do not want.
  • Date and place of birth
    , the date of birth is in the resume is an important component, the birthplace rather less. Your age is the basis of date of birth, of course, determines what can be advantageous or disadvantageous, depending.
  • Marital status, children
    is also important to provide your children if you have any. Although children in many professions is rather a negative factor today, the indication is also in your interest.
  • Nationality
    The nationality you must always specify the existing. Do you have dual nationality, so you both specify.
  • Period of schooling
    shows the indication of the period of schooling, whether at your gaps in your CV are available.
  • School type and school location
    Which public school in what place they visited is relevant generally only regional applications. For national applications, it is often not so important to colleges and universities, we arrive in port.
  • School
    here is crucial always her last school, the resist is your current level of education.
vocational training
  • Period of training
    The indication of the period of vocational training carried out in months and years. An indication until the day is just not usually necessary.
  • Academic title
    Always Indicate the exact academic title. Especially with short applications without submission of certificates is only as guarantee that there no confusion comes with other similar-sounding professions the employer.
  • Operating or School of Education
    The quality of training is often even after the training company or college. A well-known brand or a reputable companies are usually more helpful than the unknown.
  • Associate degree
    After completing the school career is the next highest, and often also the last final name for most of the Associate degree.


  • Period of study
    here is seen, if you were a so-called “perpetual student.” However, this is no longer as relevant as a few decades ago in today’s statements.
  • Specialisation or study focus
    here should be displayed as a rule only the major field of study in interdisciplinary programs but is also an indication of the additional areas useful.
  • Visited University
    The university can be a plus or a minus, depending on how the College of the respective degree program is considered.
  • Academic Degree
    Name Your complete degree. Specifying final grades within the resume of an application is not absolutely necessary.
work experience
  • Period
    When was where professional experience collected? This can be all kinds of labor relations, including internships.
  • Profession
    job you exercised? Many workers can become blurred over the years of work, ultimately counts is what the employment contract.
  • Companies and place
    here is not the address of the employer relevant, an indication of the full company name and the company headquarters is sufficient.
  • Activity
    The profession exercised indeed says a lot, but nothing about the actual activity in companies. Here you can specify their area of responsibility and the responsibility.
additional qualifications
  • Internships (period, activity, company and location)
  • Semester abroad (period, country, city and university)
  • voluntary work
Special Knowledge and abilities
  • Foreign languages (degree of dominance – basics, good, fluent, native)
  • Computer skills
  • driver’s license
  • developments
Military and civilian
  • The military and civilian has been abolished in Germany since 2011th Nevertheless, there are of course a lot of people who have completed their military or community service in different duration. This point has to be set separately, or to put in chronological or against chronological version at the appropriate time point.
  • Hobbies
    The View is not a must to list on a resume. The individual candidate This decision is made even. Who mentioned hobbies in his resume, showing thus possibly that it has an intact social life. Of course, the nature of the hobby can be reversed may cause negative associations, for example in a dangerous or time-consuming hobby.
  • Notes gaps and abroad
    Many young people today go for a long time abroad. Such gaps are not exceptional, but very often, nor negative, but rather positive to evaluate today. However, they must of course be named and explained what the “other” is suitable.
Place, date and signature
  • Finally, the location and the current date is always set. This is often a source of error, for example if the CV is not individually adapted to the respective job posting. For applications by post will also find the handwritten signature is necessary.

The application photo on your summary

The passport photo can be attached to the summary up next to the personal data, preferably with a photo corners when it gets sent by post. Increasingly, the picture is placed within the application and on a cover sheet when the application includes a cover sheet.

Gaps in your summary

Important in this context is that a curriculum vitae are no gaps. If you still have gaps in your summary you should be honest and not try to HR decision-makers to deceive. At the latest during the interview or in later professional life this deception is revealed.

Development of the summary – from the typewriter to PC

The summary of an application has changed in recent years as well as the entire application folder itself, which means that there is not only a way to create a resume. 25 years ago, the summary was made mainly by hand, 15 years ago, the typewriters were then standard and today the production is almost exclusively on the PC.

The handwritten made in detailed form exists today but sporadically in certain occupations. Usually, however, this is only for the interpretation of the manuscript because it is assumed that conclusions about the person can be drawn.

The summary with the typewriter is no longer used today, but again and again we see – especially in older people without computer affinity – CVs that are produced using a typewriter for applications.

Filename of the application documents


Clean file name for the documents your application

In the online application belonging to the application documents usually either as an e-mail attachment sent or uploaded to the application portal in the site of the potential employer.

In both versions, the file name of each document are later visible to the personnel responsible. Thus also in this point, a good impression can be achieved, some things in terms of the file names of the documents should be considered.

Talking and useful filenames

Filename like “Lebenslauf1.pdf”, “lebenslauf.pdf” or “neu.pdf write” Although point already indicate what the recruiters expect after opening of the document, but they are nevertheless not yet optimal for different reasons.

The first example cited “Lebenslauf1.pdf” looks unclean by the “1” in the file name. An improvement of this file name is given to the second example mentioned “lebenslauf.pdf”. Displays the file name of the document has already been adjusted for extra characters. Full optimally this file name, however, is still not.

HR managers usually finds not only an application, but in some cases a lot, possibly hundreds of applications for an advertised position. Addiction of HR then resume after a particular candidate, the membership of a document at a particular candidate based on the file name is not visible.

That is, it must either seek laboriously in his e-mail inbox after the job application email, or open the document first, before he knows which candidates that document belongs. Therefore here are some examples of good file names:

  • summary_Max_Mustermann.pdf
  • cv_Max_Mustermann.pdf
  • resume_Maria_Mustermann.pdf
  • senior-maria-mustermann.pdf
  • cv-max-mustermann.pdf
  • certificates-maria-mustermann.pdf

Such filenames do not only show clearly which documents of which candidate to hide behind the file name, but can be found easily and quickly using the search function of e-mail programs or Windows Explorer.

Moreover, can thus also indicate the sense of the candidate for order and structure.

What should be avoided?

To prevent mainly technical problems should be dispensed with some things in terms of the file names of the documents.

  • Word separator: should either dashes as word separators – are or underscores “_” used “.” In spaces or other special characters should be avoided.
  • Special characters: The special characters “Ä”, “Ö” and “Ü” and the “ß” should in the filename will be replaced as follows: “Ä” -> “ae”, “east” -> “oe”, Ü – > “ue” and “ß” -> “ss”.Next should be dispensed with all special characters except the hyphen and the underscore.
  • Version Information: The documents should not be labeled “Lebenslauf1.pdf”, “Lebenslauf_V3.pdf” or “Lebenslauf_final.pdf”. The version of your document is not relevant for the HR managers, it will go out meaningful way assume that you send him the final version of your document.
  • When using patterns and templates: If you used on this or other website CV format to use, you should save your created from resume under a different file name. A document with the filename “cv-template-26.pdf” or “pattern senior-1.pdf” makes a rule in any recruiters a good impression!
  • File formats that can not be opened with standard software: If, for example, decide to compress parts of your application you, then you should first make sure that it is the archive generated during compression is a format that the recipient of your application also can disassemble them with standard software.

How can I change the file name of my documents?

There are two very simple ways that you can change the file name of your document. For one, you can download the appropriate file in your text editor just under a file name to save (keyword: “Save As …”).

On the other hand, you can specify the file name via the Windows Explorer (assuming that you use the Windows operating system from Microsoft) change. For this you need to navigate to the document and then click the right mouse button on the document only in Windows Explorer – then opens a so-called context menu in which you can then select “Rename”.

But the former variant is likely to be easier in most cases.

E-mail address in your summary

This should be considered when the e-mail address in your summary


Applications by email are today common to daily practice and nothing special.

Although now almost everyone has an email address, however, it may still be advantageous to create an email address specifically for sent applications and configure them accordingly.

The two typical pitfalls related to the e-mail address are firstly undesirable names of electronic mail, on the other, unfilled or inappropriately filled sender data.

suessemaus95 @ … com, imperator @ … net, gaming.gott@…com – For the CV rather not a good choice

Although the title of this paragraph exemplified e-mail addresses may be suitable for some purposes, they are for the summary rather less suitable.

When applying seriousness and professionalism is important, therefore, also responsible for the contact in application and CV specified e-mail address should contribute to a corresponding picture.

The relevant documents should be sent from a corresponding e-mail address.

“Gaming God <gaming.gott@…com>” – configuration of the first and last name in e-mail provider

Many e-mail programs show not only the return address, but also additional information, such as first and last name of the sender.

Thus, the personnel managers of the potential new employer does not receive electronic mail from “Gaming God” or “Empire Imperator”, which used for sending application documents email mailbox should be configured correctly.

Properly configured, in this sense means that the correct name and surname is specified without errors and typos.

It looks like a professional email mailbox

As will be touched upon in the previous section, the correct first and last name plays a crucial role in a professional e-mail mailbox. The e-mail address should therefore be structured as follows:


The corresponding fields of the mailbox configuration should also be filled in correctly, so that, in combination of the following sender in the recruiters email client:

“First name Last Name <vorname.nachname@…com>”

Even the choice of the so-called provider (the provider, in which you create the e-mail address) should be used on a reputable and established suppliers.

Known suppliers of e-mail addresses are (…, GMX (… / …, Google (… / … Microsoft (… or Yahoo (… with special IT skills can also go one step further and use your own domain for the mailbox (for example, “vorname@nachname.tld”).

This solution may lie in if you already have a website on which one is for example one’s own person. Again, however, it should be absolutely sure that the information on the page is not a snare!

summary information


What is behind the term “Curriculum Vitae (CV)”

Perhaps you have been prompted once as part of a bidding process, a document entitled Curriculum Vitae submitted. At first this may possibly sound a bit confusing.

But behind the strange name who like also with CV is abbreviated, hides basically nothing more than aresume . This should be accompanied by an each application file and, depending on occupational environment and the usual in this environment conditions also require special considerations in the preparation.

In addition to the cover sheet, the cover letter and the testimonies, references and other investments the Curriculum Vitae is therefore of great importance if you want to convince an employer of personal information.

Already the formal structure and content of this document may have some differences from the traditional CV in tabular form. Assigns the usual resume either no heading or the heading “CV”, so the Latin counterpart is frequently selected “Curriculum Vitae” as the name of this document, especially in the academic fields.

Not recommended however, it is to use the abbreviation “CV” when applying for an academic position. When writing an English CV , however, which is also often referred to as Curriculum Vitae, the abbreviation “CV” will just turn more frequently in the field of creative professionals use.

It is these small details that can sometimes decide on the allocation of a free item; as well as the portrait shot, which should usually attach your CV while applying in Germany about the size of a passport photo.

Here, too, there is no alternative professional quality – but this investment for a professionalresume photo should consider each candidate, as this can contribute to a successful first impression on the recruiters.

The structure of the summary

Under the heading “summary” first your personal information such as full name, address, contact information (phone number and e-mail address) and birth are placed in a rule.

The additional indication of the names of the parents and their profession is at the present day, however, no longer common. In a further step of summary perform in a new block in your career, which the reader of your Curriculum Vitae can take your work experience and possibly reached Promotions.

Worth mentioning are usually in a specially designated block and activity-related internships. This last block can then, for example, be placed directly after the block with respect to scholastic and academic career. Ideally, each of the companies is also provided with a short description and a web link to the company’s website.

Readers of Curriculum Vitae can understand quickly in this way, for which companies you have worked and which sectors are allocated these. Subsequently, the school and possibly university or academic career follows: What teaching facilities you have in which years visited? What qualifications and skills you could acquire?

In this context any further developments and other qualifications should not be forgotten, which can be called in another block in your CV. But be careful, it might seem reasonable to enumerate even the most insignificant action.Present but ideally only those which are related to the target workstation and its activity.

summary is subsequently expanded to include additional personal skills: What languages have you learned that driving classes have you, are skills in using computers and other devices or machines before?

Finally done, especially in the academic and journalistic field a block, be cited in which the recent publications of a candidate. Finish your CV after the last block with the names of the place, date and signature.

Form and extent of the summary

Usually, the summary is written in a computer in the tabular form. Use this option, as long as a continuous text or even a handwritten CV is expressly required. The length of the resume should be tailored to your personal and professional career, but do not exceed two filled Din A4 pages.

Keep yourself if necessary in hobbies and other activities your little shorter, do not save the other hand, with regard to qualifications acquired in the work environment.Also important is the use of gaps, cracks or less positive developments in your career: Entrance to present them if necessary briefly without relentlessly the whole truth.

The hiring manager is initially only interested in a coherent summary – further inquiries are then optionally be discussed in an interview. It is important however, not deliberately distort the realities coarse.

Lies in a Curriculum Vitae always a risk! If your map is no stringent career CV due to frequent changes of employer or even the professions, so even that is no reason for untruths. Underline so instead your flexibility and the ability to try new things.

The advantageous They may also constitute minor flaws, the more interest will experience, grow up to you. Let therefore not be misled by its name “Curriculum Vitae”, because ultimately lies behind this concept nothing more than a CV, whose form and content should be adapted to one or the other position slightly if necessary.